The Panalytical Empyrean X-ray diffractometer provides crystallographic and compositional information critical to understanding the mechanical performance of 3D-printed parts. Through small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), the ability to test samples at temperatures ranging from −200 °C to 1100 °C, and the capture of information on texture, residual stress and pair distribution functions, the Panalytical Empyrean demonstrates how the crystal structure of 3D-printed metals changes during operation at high and low temperatures, a significant concern in aerospace. Residual stress and texture are major concerns in as-printed metals and affect both structural conformity and mechanical behavior. Along with the crystallographic information that X-ray diffraction provides, compositional variations in additively manufactured parts are often far from the equilibrium phases predicted in phase diagrams. The properties of phases found in the as-printed part, and the change in those properties as those phases transform in service, is crucial information when designing for AM.


  • Cu and Mo radiation for low- and high-energy XRD
  • Reflection/transmission geometry with rotating sample for improved statistics
  • Spinning capillary
  • Bragg–Brentano optics and focusing geometry
  • Residual strain measurements
  • Cu/Mo focusing mirror and monocapillary 100 µm beam for microdiffraction
  • 5-axis Eulerian cradle for texture mapping
  • Grazing incidence XRD
  • Pair distribution function
  • Galipix 3D area detector
  • In situ stages from −200 to 1100 °C (−328 to 2012 °F)

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