The Malvern Panalytical Empyrean X-ray diffractometer provides crystallographic and compositional information critical to understanding the mechanical performance of 3D-printed parts. Through small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), the ability to test samples at temperatures ranging from −200 °C to 1100 °C, and the capture of information on texture, residual stress and pair distribution functions, the Panalytical Empyrean demonstrates how the crystal structure of 3D-printed metals changes during operation at high and low temperatures, a significant concern in aerospace. Residual stress and texture are major concerns in as-printed metals and affect both structural conformity and mechanical behavior. Along with the crystallographic information that X-ray diffraction provides, compositional variations in additively manufactured parts are often far from the equilibrium phases predicted in phase diagrams. The properties of phases found in the as-printed part, and the change in those properties as those phases transform in service, is crucial information when designing for AM.