Earlier this year, ADAPTSM and Citrine Informatics completed Phase I and applied for Phase II funding for ongoing research for the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), the largest of the U.S. Navy’s five systems commands. With 74,000 civilian, military and contract support personnel, NAVSEA engineers, builds, buys and maintains the Navy’s ships, submarines and combat systems.
Since it is impractical to use high-fidelity, destructive instruments to analyze additively manufactured parts in the field (e.g., micro X-ray computed tomography, electron microscopy, tensile testing, etc.), the program’s research is focused on developing a machine learning platform that correlates statistics from such high-fidelity, destructive test results with signals from low-fidelity, nondestructive test approaches. When completed, this platform will provide Navy personnel in the field a reliable way to evaluate new or in-service parts to determine if they are at risk of failure and/or to determine the expected life remaining on additively manufactured parts.
Phase I showed that the platform can automatically upload and analyze mechanical testing and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) data, and that models can be built to statistically determine the effects of pore defects on the strength and stiffness of AM Inconel 718 samples. It also laid the foundation to generate and incorporate nondestructive ultrasonic and radiographic testing data, as well as fatigue performances, into the statistics-based framework.
The model will enable fast, predictive evaluation of the quality of AM-built parts, when they are printed and as they degrade in service, using nondestructive methods. It will be created using machine learning to establish relationships between low-fidelity, nondestructive tests and high-fidelity, destructive tests.
Phase I began with completing XCT and mechanical property characterizations, generating nondestructive test data, and training XCT-ultrasonic and radiographic models for Inconel 718. It is proposed to expand the framework to quantify effects of defects in other alloy classes like titanium and stainless steel, and other types of defects, such as grain size, texture and dislocation morphologies.
The proposed three-year continuation program’s final deliverable will be a web-based software platform that will generate and update models for Navy engineers to transform raw nondestructive testing data into quantitative prediction of part performance in minutes, with visualization and plotting tools to report the information. This tool will also be available to ADAPT member companies for use and critique as it is being developed through the adapt.citrination platform.
In April, the ADAPTSM Center hosted Senator Cory Gardner of Colorado as part of his visit to Colorado School of Mines.
Discussion focused on the future of manufacturing shifting to a network-based, on-demand model enabled by additive manufacturing (AM). Such a model can democratize manufacturing, help the country adapt to shifting manufacturing needs, and impact military readiness.
An important part of preparing for this shift is a new partnership with Prof. Steve Simske at Colorado State University to bring cyber-physical security to manufacturing networks and supply chains and to address forgery concerns.
Sen. Gardner’s American Innovation and Competitiveness Act, enacted during President Obama’s term, has benefited ADAPT’s work and funding. ADAPT Executive Director Aaron Stebner and other ADAPT leadership shared details about the TARDEC program, including MAXXPRO/MRAP part replacement and supply chain simplification; the Quality Made program to develop a laser hot wire system that builds in process control with integrated machine learning for flexible, large-scale manufacturing; and ADAPT’s DOD-OEA program.
See Sen. Gardner’s full statement on his Mines visit here:
The ADAPTSM Center’s work on behalf of the US Department of Defense Office of Economic Adjustment (DoD OEA) began in 2017 and has been extended into 2020. This collaborative effort with the University of Utah, Colorado School of Mines, and Carnegie Mellon University is focused on diversifying the manufacturing supply chain of the future.
A key part of the project, both in Colorado and Utah, is educating manufacturers – especially defense contractors – about metal AM. A strong foundation of metal AM knowledge and capability offers a path to economic resilience for manufacturers. AM provides flexibility to enable manufacturers to diversify and gives the DoD a way to build a more resilient defense supply chain based on AM.
“This collaboration sets the foundation of how we diversify the manufacturing supply chain of the future,” emphasized ADAPT Executive Director Aaron Stebner. “We’re moving away from the assembly line to a distributed network of AM machines. That promotes a more even keel for the defense manufacturing supply chain and provides opportunities for others to get involved.”
One example of the potential AM holds is the redesign of the MRAP hinge assembly for the Army’s TARDEC group featured in last month’s ADAPT newsletter.
Through workshops and training sessions, ADAPT and the collaborating institutions on the DoD OEA program have been able to help local manufacturers. “We invite them to learn about the technical and business case for using metal AM to enhance and diversify their businesses,” said Bart Raeymaekers, project lead with University of Utah. “That helps make their companies and the workforce as a whole more resilient and able to deal with the ups and downs in defense spending.”
In Utah, work with Hill Air Force Base has focused on new approaches to keep the aging A-10 Warthog and the brand-new F-35 Lightning II fleets in the air. “The supplier that made a part may no longer exist, or we may have better ways to build a part today than when the plane was originally manufactured. Using AM is proving effective in sustainment for old aircraft and in field repairs for very new aircraft,” said Raeymaekers.
Together, the team is printing parts with titanium and Inconel using different process parameters to characterize material and mechanical properties, which are stored in a cloud-based database. Machine learning algorithms from Citrine Informatics then mine the database produced.
The result is data-driven models that can direct future research. “It takes a lot of trial and error to tune process parameters for a metal AM process to produce parts with the desired properties,” said Raeymaekers. “We’re working to use machine learning to accelerate that work. Usually, we work to understand the physics and then capture that in a mathematical model. With machine learning, we build models based on large data sets.”
Another key focus of this collaborative approach is exploring how machine learning and data analytics can enhance communication across the supply chain. The data-driven approach allows technicians to share information with R&D engineers, and engineers to share their discoveries with technicians, without the significant communication gaps that often muddy that part of the process.
Phase 1 of the DoD OEA program has proven successful enough that Phase 2 funds were awarded based on the progress achieved in Phase 1. That extends the work of ADAPT, Citrine, Colorado School of Mines, University of Utah, and Carnegie Mellon University, along with the University of Utah MEP Center, to July 2020. The results achieved through the TARDEC project, initiated by Fort Carson in Colorado, created an opportunity to discuss ways to apply AM to help Peterson Air Force Base with some specific needs as the project moves into Phase 2.
The efforts in the DoD OEA program have ranged from granular research – Carnegie Mellon’s work to understand the fundamentals of porosity in AM builds, why it happens, where it comes from, and how to control for and avoid it – to strategic questions of the nation’s defense supply chain and diversifying and increasing resiliency of supply chains for all of manufacturing. This important work continues to demonstrate the potential of AM.
Accelerating Additive Process Qualification with Redesigned Hinge Replacements
In 2007, in response to a growing threat of IEDs (improvised explosive devices) in the Iraq War, the U.S. Department of Defense began a program to produce Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) light tactical vehicles. At some point, in response to changing threats in the field, the cab doors were modified to add a 400-lb. armor plate to the existing 800-lb. design to better protect people inside the trucks.
Unfortunately, this up-armoring added weight that tested and often exceeded the strength of the doors’ hinges. In some cases, the hinges failed while on base. In other instances, doors fell off in the field while on patrol in Afghanistan and Crimea, leaving soldiers to figure out how to reattach a 1,200-lb door to get themselves and their vehicle back to safety.
Hinge failure could take the vehicle out of commission for an extended time – as long as two years – while replacement hinges from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) were procured, delivered and installed through the traditional supply chain. At times, the valuable vehicles would need to be transported back to the U.S. at great expense to complete the repair. That led TARDEC, the U.S. Army’s Tank and Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center, to seek an alternative supply for replacement hinges. TARDEC brought the challenge to the ADAPTSM Center, and together with its members and partners, ADAPT used data-driven additive manufacturing (AM) to reproduce and ultimately redesign the hinges.
An ADAPT partnership of Colorado School of Mines, Elementum 3D, Citrine Informatics and Ft. Carson worked with TARDEC and the Air Force Research Laboratory to first replicate and characterize the fatigue performances of the direct replacement parts made using AM. The knowledge gained from that initial phase of the program informed a redesign of the hinge using design for additive principles, which reduced the number of parts in the hinge assembly from six to one and reduced the maximum stress in the hinge joints from 900 MPa to below 90 MPa (an order of magnitude increase in the factor of safety). Then, in the final stage of the program, ADAPT partnered with Professor Albert To at the University of Pittsburgh to optimize the geometry of the designed-for-AM hinges, which reduced their weight by 38% relative to the original hinge assemblies.
This collaborative process took a data-driven approach that showcased the strengths of the ADAPT Consortium. Using preexisting data from other ADAPT projects already in the adapt.citrination platform, the team was able to predict the quality of the replacement part, which was built using a completely new material/printer combination. The result was an 84% accurate prediction of build parameters on the first print, which simply replicated the design of the existing OEM hinge assembly. Then, the group was able to focus on how to create a simpler, lighter hinge, not just a direct replacement.
Using a design/build strategy that incorporated new modeling, simulation and experimental test data into the adapt.citrination database, the team was able to quickly produce quality specifications for temporary or permanent replacement parts. This feedback method – build, test, then use machine learning to evaluate and update the build – can significantly reduce development and qualification time. Testing verified that predicted settings like build direction and build speed produced a final product that meets or exceeds the performance required in the field in terms of strength, weight and durability.
The final hinge design, significantly stronger and lighter than the OEM hinges, eliminated the failure problem under the 1200-lb load and is a direct one-piece replacement that uses the same bolt pattern. A set of MRAP hinges built using ADAPT’s Optimize for AdditiveSM strategy are ready for ground vehicle testing by the Army in mid-2019.
Key improvements from the original OEM hinge include:
Through collaboration and the application of data-driven Optimize for Additive methodologies, ADAPT met the challenge of qualifying an AM process for ground vehicle part replacement by producing parts ready for ground testing, all within one year.
ADAPTSM students and faculty presented their latest Optimize for AdditiveSM research findings at TMS 2019 in San Antonio, Texas, the week of March 11.
Monday, March 11
10:00–10:30, Room 221A: “Modeling process-structure-property relationships in additively manufactured alloys with machine learning and materials informatics” (Branden Kappes, ADAPT Operations Director)
Tuesday, March 12
10:50–11:10, Room 221C: “Investigation of post-processing heat treatments on the mechanical and Microstructural properties of Inconel 718 manufactured by laser powder bed fusion” (Thomas Gallmeyer, PhD Student)
Wednesday, March 13
2:00–2:30, Room 221B: “A statistical framework to qualify the low cycle fatigue performance of additively manufactured steel replacement parts” (Aaron Stebner, ADAPT Executive Director)
2:30–2:50, Room 221B: “A new perspective on visualizing the elastic limit and the necessity of 6D limit hyper surfaces” (Zachary Brunson, PhD Student)
3:30–3:50, Room 221D: “Development of superelastic nickel-titanium-hafnium alloys for additive manufacturing” (Behnam Amin-Ahmadi, Research Assistant Professor)
Thursday, March 14
4:20–4:40, Room 305: “Comprehensive quality assurance of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V by learning from prior studies” (Sen Liu, PhD Student)
Originally posted on Mines Newsroom on Feb. 20, 2019.
The Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPTSM) at Colorado School of Mines is collaborating with three industry partners on new research into advanced manufacturing for military applications.
ADAPT has been awarded Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grants from the U.S. Department of Defense to conduct cooperative research with ADAPT members Citrine Informatics and Elementum 3D, as well as Boulder-based Special Aerospace Services (SAS).
The funded projects include 3D printing of rocket nozzles, a materials informatics framework to predict the effects of additive manufacturing defects and the development of new steels that soldiers could easily print with in the theater of war.
“ADAPT is especially excited about these successes in the STTR programs, as economic development centered around the U.S. manufacturing supply chain motivates the core mission of ADAPT, given our incubation by the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade and continued support from the Department of Defense’s Office of Economic Adjustment,” said Aaron Stebner, executive director of ADAPT and Rowlinson Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Mines. “These programs demonstrate the funding philosophy of ADAPT— to create a bigger pie for both the academic and industry researchers. The success doing this with our small businesses shows our commitment to transitioning the research findings into new technologies and businesses that meet our nation’s modern manufacturing needs.”
The three projects, each led by the industry partner, are:
Each project has been awarded Phase I contracts of $150,000 to prove the proposed concepts. Upon successful demonstration of the ideas, the grants may be extended for three additional years at $1.5 million each, to be shared between Mines and the companies.
The STTR program encourages small businesses and universities to work together to develop new technologies that support the nation’s needs. The DoD is one of five federal agencies that currently participates in STTR. The others are the Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, NASA and the National Science Foundation.
Emilie Rusch, Public Information Specialist, Communications and Marketing | 303-273-3361 | firstname.lastname@example.org
Mark Ramirez, Managing Editor, Communications and Marketing | 303-273-3088 | email@example.com
Lithoz assists with ceramic printer install at Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO – The Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPTSM), an industry-academia consortium that advances data informatics and advanced characterization technologies to Optimize for AdditiveSM, welcomes new member Lithoz, the world leader in development and production of ceramic materials and additive manufacturing (AM) systems.
Lithoz connected with ADAPT through a research collaboration with Professors Corinne Packard and Geoff Brennecka at Colorado School of Mines. Mines is currently investigating mechanical properties of ceramics produced by lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) with graduate student Sarah Sortedahl with the intent of exploring whether separate standards are needed for ceramic AM.
“The mechanical properties of ceramics are highly sensitive to material or manufacturing flaws,” said Professor Packard. “Working with Lithoz directly, and having a CeraFab 7500 printer here at Mines, allows us to rapidly evaluate and optimize processes for achieving strength and reliability in AM ceramics.”
“Ceramic additive manufacturing is particularly suited to aerospace and biomedical applications. The representation of these markets in ADAPT’s membership makes Mines and ADAPT a natural partnership. This partnership allowed us to install one of our ceramic printers in a Mines lab. There, it is being used for research and courses focused on AM technology and design for AM,” said Shawn Allan, VP of Lithoz America. “We are excited to see the student research projects that result from this new capability. We also hope to leverage resources such as ADAPT’s Citrination database to improve the utilization and learning that can be achieved with the vast amount of data generated in the LCM process.”
“The Lithoz membership in ADAPT formally marks our commitment to expand ADAPT’s research mission to all solid materials, beyond the alloys focus we had in our first few years,” said ADAPT Executive Director Aaron Stebner.
Lithoz is the world leader in development and production of ceramic materials and additive manufacturing systems. Ceramics produced with these systems meet the highest demands of industry especially in terms of density, strength and precision. Lithoz was founded in Vienna, Austria, in 2011 based upon research from Vienna University of Technology. Lithoz America was founded in 2017 to support the North American ceramic industry. Learn more at http://www.lithoz.com/en.
The Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPT) is an industry-academia consortium dedicated to solving challenges in additive manufacturing (AM) using data-driven approaches. Headquartered at Colorado School of Mines, ADAPT was launched in December 2015 with funding from the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade (OEDIT). Founding members include Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Citrine Informatics, Colorado School of Mines, Faustson Tool, Lockheed Martin and Manufacturer’s Edge. For more information, visit the ADAPT website, or find ADAPT on LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram.
ADAPT’s first Expo, combined with its Annual Public Meeting on Jan. 7, 2019, drew eight exhibitors and dozens of industry representatives, faculty members and students.
The Expo was held in the CoorsTek atrium on the campus of Colorado School of Mines. Exhibitors included Colorado OEDIT, Citrine Informatics, Elementum 3D, The 3D Printing Store, Lithoz America, GE Additive, ALD NanoSolutions and 3D Systems.
That evening, members and other guests, including State Senator Tammy Story of Colorado Senate District 16, attended a dinner at the student center and a presentation by ADAPT Executive Director Dr. Aaron Stebner and fellow ADAPT board member Dr. Craig Brice.
Together, they gave an in-depth review of ADAPT’s progress over the last three years, as well as its structure and management, economic development and education results, 2018 technical achievements and 2019 outlook. Highlights included:
EOS is a global technology leader for industrial 3D printing of metals and polymers. Founded in 1989, EOS is a pioneer and world leader in the field of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and they continue to master the interaction of laser and powder material.
ATI is a global manufacturer of technically advanced specialty materials and complex components. ATI is a market leader in manufacturing differentiated specialty alloys and forgings across industrial sectors. They are also a leader in producing nickel-based alloy and titanium-based alloy powders for use in next-generation jet engine forgings and 3D-printed products.
Nathan Johnson was awarded a fellowship by Los Alamos National Laboratory to study and model rapidly solidifying alloys. The fellowship was awarded for Nathan’s research with the Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPTSM). Nathan’s work focuses on characterizing the formation of microscopic grains that form as metals solidify. These in situ investigations use techniques such as high-energy X-ray and neutron diffraction to reveal mechanisms and characteristics of grain formation, ultimately determining the mechanical properties of the metal. Measurements made using diffraction will serve as the foundation of statistical models of metal manufacturing processes. Nathan’s work has impact in technologies such as additive manufacturing where complex parts are built layer by layer from small deposits of rapidly solidified alloys.
ADAPTSM member company 3D Systems is hosting an Open House at their Littleton, CO, facility on Wednesday, Dec. 5, 2018. All are welcome. Please register on their website:
Stop in and/or stay for the lecture!
Beginning at 4:00 pm on Wednesday, Nov. 14, Brian Rosenberger from Lockheed Martin Aeronautics will be available in the CoorsTek atrium (1523 Illinois St.) along with a large-scale titanium part fabricated using the directed energy deposition (DED) method of additive manufacturing. He will give a lecture at 6:00 pm for the Intro to Additive Manufacturing course – all are welcome to attend. Lecture will be held in CoorsTek atrium.
DED is an emerging use for metal additive manufacturing (AM) as a substitute for die forging of large titanium components. The hybrid process (AM + machining) has the potential to offer significant reductions in both cost and lead time for these components. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company has worked through most of the hurdles to production implementation of this technology, and Mr. Rosenberger will show an example part and describe the engineering development work to date.
Brian Rosenberger has worked in the aerospace industry for over 34 years. He has considerable experience in the aircraft conceptual design arena and has served as principal investigator and program manager for a variety of research and development projects. Since 1997, he has focused his efforts on the maturation of AM processes and materials for aerospace applications. He has extensive experience with large-scale metal AM. Mr. Rosenberger also has expertise in integrating advanced technologies into the supply chain, especially with international production partners. He holds 13 US patents.
The ADAPTSM Center’s two newest members include 3D Systems and Lithoz America.
3D Systems is a global 3D solutions provider founded in 1983 by Chuck Hull, the inventor of 3D printing. With advanced hardware, software and materials, they offer a full spectrum of services from digitization, design and simulation through manufacturing, inspection and management to customers in diverse industries.
Lithoz specializes in the development and production of materials and additive manufacturing systems for 3D printing high-performance ceramics. Their system produces components that meet the high demands of density, stability and precision required by the ceramics industry and ceramic research.
Earlier this year, ADAPT welcomed into membership Boeing, a leader in aerospace, and ALD NanoSolutions, a Colorado native that specializes in atomic layer deposition. We are excited by our continued growth with companies both big and small across industrial sectors!
Interested in ADAPT membership? Contact us to learn more!
Join us on October 10th at 4:00pm the Table Mountain Inn for a dinner and learn event hosted by Quintus Technologies in partnership with ADAPT and Colorado School of Mines. The Dinner and Learn will include a presentation from Quintus Technologies Application Specialist, Magnus Ahlfors. The presentation will be focused on advanced high-pressure heat treatments used for additively manufactured materials. We look forward to presenting and discussing current post processing and High Pressure Heat Treatment trends in the world of Additive Manufacturing. Topics that will be discussed:
The event is free, but registration is required to attend. Space is very limited!
This event is not limited to ADAPT members—please feel free to share this with a colleague!
Reposted from the Mines Newsroom:
An additive manufacturing expert with 20 years of industry and research experience at Lockheed Martin and NASA will lead the new Advanced Manufacturing degree program at Colorado School of Mines.
Craig Brice, currently a senior research scientist with the Advanced Technology Center at Lockheed Martin Space, will join the university in July as program director and professor of practice. He will teach two of the program’s four core courses, Introduction to Additive Manufacturing and Additive Manufacturing of Solid Materials.
Launching this fall, the interdisciplinary Advanced Manufacturing program will offer professional graduate certificates and non-thesis master’s degrees, as well as undergraduate minors and areas of special interest. Instruction will focus on additive manufacturing and data-driven process design and optimization, technologies that are rapidly maturing in the aerospace, automotive, defense, biomedical and energy industries both locally and worldwide.
“We are really excited that Craig Brice is joining the Mines faculty – he has been active in the metals additive manufacturing field for 20 years and is a pillar of the community. He has led certification programs for additively manufactured titanium parts for the Lockheed Martin F-35 program, advised national policy and programs and earned his PhD while working in industry,” said Aaron Stebner, Rowlinson Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and executive director of the Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPT) at Mines. “Craig has decades of firsthand experience with the type of training that professionals need to advance the industry – he knows what professional students need as they go back for further training.”
Brice has spent his entire career working in additive manufacturing, particularly from the materials and processing side. At Lockheed Martin, Brice focused on metallic additive manufacturing and materials research and development for a variety of spaceflight applications. Prior to moving to Colorado, Brice worked at the NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia in its Advanced Materials and Processing Branch and at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics’ Advanced Development Programs in Fort Worth, Texas.
“The timing is right for a curriculum like this,” Brice said. “Over the past three to five years, additive manufacturing has really exploded as big companies like Lockheed Martin and GE have made sizable investments to try to streamline processes, reduce cost and improve performance. But there’s not a great talent pool that is knowledgeable about these additive processes – how to design with them, what it means for the materials, how to qualify parts for use. Students coming out of school with exposure to that will be one step ahead of everyone else.”
Brice previously taught at Mines as an adjunct professor, leading the new program’s pilot course, Introduction to Additive Manufacturing, twice over the past two years. He was a founding member of ADAPT and will rejoin the ADAPT board as its industry relations director. Brice holds a bachelor of science degree in metallurgical engineering from Missouri University of Science & Technology, a master of science in materials science and engineering from The Ohio State University and a PhD in mechanical engineering from the University of Canterbury.
“I’m excited to be joining Colorado School of Mines as it launches one of the first graduate training programs in advanced manufacturing in the U.S.,” Brice said. “There’s a huge demand in industry for people with even basic knowledge of these techniques – it’s a different way of thinking about how to go about manufacturing goods. If you’ve been doing it the conventional way, it’s time to adjust to the new paradigm.”