ADAPT PhD student Thomas Gallmeyer won the Best Paper Award at GVSETS 2019. The 11th annual GVSETS & APBI (Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium and Advanced Planning Briefings for Industry) was hosted by the Michigan chapter of the National Defense Industrial Association Aug. 13–15 in Novi, Michigan.
Tom’s paper is titled “Systematic Development of Framework for Validation and Performance Quantification of Additively Manufactured (AM) Replacement Parts for Structural Steel Applications.” Co-authors include Jinesh Dahal, Branden Kappes, Aaron Stebner, Ravi Thyagarajan, Juan Miranda, Adam Pilchak and Jacob Nuechterlein. Funding for the research was provided by the U.S. Army CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center.
GVSETS & APBI brings together more than 1,000 executives, program managers, engineers, and key decision-makers to discuss and collaborate technology, initiatives, programs and plans in the ground domain. Through its program of presentations, panel discussions, speakers, exhibits, technical paper presentations and one-on-one meetings with Army Ground Systems decision makers, GVSETS & APBI is a unique opportunity for the community to come together to shape the future success of the nation’s Warfighters.
ADAPT welcomes new member First RF Corporation! Located in Boulder, Colorado, First RF is an advanced technologies company specializing in antennas and radio frequency (RF) systems. As a product-focused company, they provide their customers with concept-to-deployment support through their Technologies and Manufacturing divisions. First RF offers cutting-edge applied R&D capabilities by exploring, maturing, and applying new technologies into product designs.
ADAPT Executive Director Aaron Stebner spent the summer as a visiting researcher at the International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS) at the National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba, Japan. Read the interview about Stebner’s research and his views on the future of materials.
Jeff King and team explore radiation’s impact on additively manufactured stainless steel and Inconel
The use of additive manufacturing (AM) for mission-critical applications is often limited due to a lack of characterization and property data, which is necessary to meet quality assurance requirements. The nuclear industry is no exception. Data is needed on the performance of AM parts during irradiation in a nuclear reactor to ensure that they can survive and function as intended in challenging nuclear energy environments.
Dr. Jeffrey King and his team at Colorado School of Mines are collecting irradiation performance data for stainless steel (SS) and Inconel samples from billets produced using different AM techniques, including laser powder bed fusion, laser free-form fabrication, and electron beam wire feed. Mines is conducting pre-irradiation thermomechanical testing (tensile strength, yield strength, elastic modulus, ductility, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) and microstructural characterization of the unirradiated specimens. Mines is uniquely positioned to research this area with its strong materials background and interdisciplinary nuclear program as well as with the work of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Center (NuSEC) and ADAPT.
“We’re not the first to do this, but we’re close,” said King. Bombarding metals with neutrons causes physical changes, typically making metals harder but more brittle, or more likely to break suddenly. King’s research examines how additively manufactured parts might perform in a reactor environment compared to conventional parts. “We hope to show AM materials where strength goes up or stays the same and ductility does not go down,” noted King.
AM could benefit the nuclear industry in several ways. Additive processes could be used to create novel geometries for components that improve reactor performance, such as filters or fuel elements. Additionally, given that most nuclear plants are decades old, there are critical parts, such as valves, that are no longer made and that are expensive to replace. This issue is also common in the military, as investigated in ADAPT’s hinge redesign program with the U.S. Army’s CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center (previously named TARDEC). AM could enable single replacements of reactor parts to be made at reasonable cost with short turnaround time.
The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory irradiated a set of specimens produced by Dr. King’s group. The ATR is the highest-power research and testing reactor in the United States. It has a fraction of the power of most commercial nuclear plants, but 10 times their neutron flux. The effects of that flux on AM metal parts are what King and his colleagues hope to observe.
Thermomechanical testing and microstructural characterization of the irradiated specimens will begin soon at the Low Activation Materials Design and Analysis (LAMDA) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) at Idaho National Laboratory.
A comparison of the physical properties and microstructure of the irradiated specimens to those of the as-fabricated specimens will provide insight into the viability of AM parts for nuclear reactor applications. It will also identify key areas of concern for further technology development efforts and provide data for future computational model development.
The NSUF continues to provide funding and facility support for this project. For more on Jeffrey King, visit https://metallurgy.mines.edu/project/king-jeffrey/.
Mines’ Advanced Manufacturing Program Director Craig Brice and several of his students worked with Adam Savage on an episode of “Savage Builds,” a brand-new series premiering on the Discovery Channel on June 14. The series is all about extreme and innovative engineering challenges.
Brice partnered with ADAPT member company EOS to design and build a 3D-printed titanium suit of armor inspired by the Iron Man films. But Savage and the team didn’t stop there—with the help of a customized Gravity Jet Suit designed by Richard Browning’s Gravity Industries, the suit actually flew.
Pictured to the right is the full titanium suit, and above, Craig Brice shakes the Iron Man–gloved hand of show creator Adam Savage. The glove represents about 25 of the approximately 250 3D-printed pieces that went into the suit. Brice’s project was chosen for the premier episode, which airs on June 14 on the Discovery Channel. Read an interview with Brice that outlines the details of the project, and check out these teaser videos from Savage’s Instagram feed: Brice outfitting Savage with glove pieces, and the suit flight test.
Post-show “behind the scenes” video: https://www.cnet.com/news/adam-savage-tests-an-iron-man-suit-that-really-flies-go-behind-the-scenes/
NASA’s investment helps improve 3D metal printing for aviation
NASA, as part of its Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), selected three university-led teams last month to explore new ways to build and power the aircraft of the future. Colorado School of Mines and ADAPT are part of a team led by the NextManufacturing Center at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) to explore new ways to use additive manufacturing to reduce costs and increase the speed of mass-producing aircraft without sacrificing quality, reliability, and safety.
This is the second year NASA has asked the academic world to help it achieve its strategic goals through the University Leadership Initiative (ULI). The three teams (including groups from University of Wisconsin–Madison and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), will receive about $15 million over three years. Almost $7 million of that will go to the team led by NextManufacturing.
The ULI was created to initiate a new type of interaction between ARMD and the university community, where U.S. universities take the lead, build their own teams, and set their own research paths. This initiative seeks new, innovative ideas that can support the NASA ARMD portfolio and the U.S. aviation community.
The NextManufacturing-led project, Development of an Additive Manufacturing Ecosystem for Qualification of Additive Manufacturing Processes and Materials in Aviation, is led by Dr. Anthony Rollett, with a number of co-investigators from CMU, Colorado School of Mines, Case Western Reserve University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Texas at El Paso, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, The Barnes Group, and Materials Resources LLC. Other partners will include the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Argonne National Laboratory, ANSYS, Lockheed Martin, Trumpf, Eaton, General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, Northrop Grumman, Materials Solutions, Metal Powder Works, and Siemens.
The project will focus on process qualification for laser powder bed fusion 3D printing. The aim is to lower the cost of manufacturing, especially for short-run production and replacement parts, and to encourage economic growth by enabling small contractors to qualify their AM processes and equipment.
Mines/ADAPT researchers, including Drs. Owen Hildreth, Branden Kappes, Aaron Stebner, Craig Brice, and Behnam Amin-Ahmadi, will work with ADAPT member company Citrine Informatics to use machine learning to characterize and qualify additively manufactured parts and to help overcome the challenge of creating a scientifically sound basis for qualifying 3D printed parts. This is an important step toward demonstrating how to design and use facilities for efficient, large-scale production of these parts.
ULI provides the opportunity for university teams to exercise technical and organizational leadership in proposing unique technical challenges, defining interdisciplinary solutions, establishing peer review mechanisms, and applying innovative teaming strategies to strengthen the research impact. By addressing the most complex challenges associated with ARMD strategic thrusts, universities will accelerate progress toward achieving high-impact outcomes while leveraging their capability to bring together the best and brightest minds across many disciplines. To transition their research, Principal Investigators (PIs) are expected to actively explore transition opportunities and pursue follow-on funding from stakeholders and industrial partners during the award.
An opportunity for ULI Round 3 is now open in NSPIRES.
Earlier this year, ADAPTSM and Citrine Informatics completed Phase I and applied for Phase II funding for ongoing research for the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA), the largest of the U.S. Navy’s five systems commands. With 74,000 civilian, military and contract support personnel, NAVSEA engineers, builds, buys and maintains the Navy’s ships, submarines and combat systems.
Since it is impractical to use high-fidelity, destructive instruments to analyze additively manufactured parts in the field (e.g., micro X-ray computed tomography, electron microscopy, tensile testing, etc.), the program’s research is focused on developing a machine learning platform that correlates statistics from such high-fidelity, destructive test results with signals from low-fidelity, nondestructive test approaches. When completed, this platform will provide Navy personnel in the field a reliable way to evaluate new or in-service parts to determine if they are at risk of failure and/or to determine the expected life remaining on additively manufactured parts.
Phase I showed that the platform can automatically upload and analyze mechanical testing and X-ray computed tomography (XCT) data, and that models can be built to statistically determine the effects of pore defects on the strength and stiffness of AM Inconel 718 samples. It also laid the foundation to generate and incorporate nondestructive ultrasonic and radiographic testing data, as well as fatigue performances, into the statistics-based framework.
The model will enable fast, predictive evaluation of the quality of AM-built parts, when they are printed and as they degrade in service, using nondestructive methods. It will be created using machine learning to establish relationships between low-fidelity, nondestructive tests and high-fidelity, destructive tests.
Phase I began with completing XCT and mechanical property characterizations, generating nondestructive test data, and training XCT-ultrasonic and radiographic models for Inconel 718. It is proposed to expand the framework to quantify effects of defects in other alloy classes like titanium and stainless steel, and other types of defects, such as grain size, texture and dislocation morphologies.
The proposed three-year continuation program’s final deliverable will be a web-based software platform that will generate and update models for Navy engineers to transform raw nondestructive testing data into quantitative prediction of part performance in minutes, with visualization and plotting tools to report the information. This tool will also be available to ADAPT member companies for use and critique as it is being developed through the adapt.citrination platform.
In April, the ADAPTSM Center hosted Senator Cory Gardner of Colorado as part of his visit to Colorado School of Mines.
Discussion focused on the future of manufacturing shifting to a network-based, on-demand model enabled by additive manufacturing (AM). Such a model can democratize manufacturing, help the country adapt to shifting manufacturing needs, and impact military readiness.
An important part of preparing for this shift is a new partnership with Prof. Steve Simske at Colorado State University to bring cyber-physical security to manufacturing networks and supply chains and to address forgery concerns.
Sen. Gardner’s American Innovation and Competitiveness Act, enacted during President Obama’s term, has benefited ADAPT’s work and funding. ADAPT Executive Director Aaron Stebner and other ADAPT leadership shared details about the TARDEC program, including MAXXPRO/MRAP part replacement and supply chain simplification; the Quality Made program to develop a laser hot wire system that builds in process control with integrated machine learning for flexible, large-scale manufacturing; and ADAPT’s DOD-OEA program.
See Sen. Gardner’s full statement on his Mines visit here:
The ADAPTSM Center’s work on behalf of the US Department of Defense Office of Economic Adjustment (DoD OEA) began in 2017 and has been extended into 2020. This collaborative effort with the University of Utah, Colorado School of Mines, and Carnegie Mellon University is focused on diversifying the manufacturing supply chain of the future.
A key part of the project, both in Colorado and Utah, is educating manufacturers – especially defense contractors – about metal AM. A strong foundation of metal AM knowledge and capability offers a path to economic resilience for manufacturers. AM provides flexibility to enable manufacturers to diversify and gives the DoD a way to build a more resilient defense supply chain based on AM.
“This collaboration sets the foundation of how we diversify the manufacturing supply chain of the future,” emphasized ADAPT Executive Director Aaron Stebner. “We’re moving away from the assembly line to a distributed network of AM machines. That promotes a more even keel for the defense manufacturing supply chain and provides opportunities for others to get involved.”
One example of the potential AM holds is the redesign of the MRAP hinge assembly for the Army’s TARDEC group featured in last month’s ADAPT newsletter.
Through workshops and training sessions, ADAPT and the collaborating institutions on the DoD OEA program have been able to help local manufacturers. “We invite them to learn about the technical and business case for using metal AM to enhance and diversify their businesses,” said Bart Raeymaekers, project lead with University of Utah. “That helps make their companies and the workforce as a whole more resilient and able to deal with the ups and downs in defense spending.”
In Utah, work with Hill Air Force Base has focused on new approaches to keep the aging A-10 Warthog and the brand-new F-35 Lightning II fleets in the air. “The supplier that made a part may no longer exist, or we may have better ways to build a part today than when the plane was originally manufactured. Using AM is proving effective in sustainment for old aircraft and in field repairs for very new aircraft,” said Raeymaekers.
Together, the team is printing parts with titanium and Inconel using different process parameters to characterize material and mechanical properties, which are stored in a cloud-based database. Machine learning algorithms from Citrine Informatics then mine the database produced.
The result is data-driven models that can direct future research. “It takes a lot of trial and error to tune process parameters for a metal AM process to produce parts with the desired properties,” said Raeymaekers. “We’re working to use machine learning to accelerate that work. Usually, we work to understand the physics and then capture that in a mathematical model. With machine learning, we build models based on large data sets.”
Another key focus of this collaborative approach is exploring how machine learning and data analytics can enhance communication across the supply chain. The data-driven approach allows technicians to share information with R&D engineers, and engineers to share their discoveries with technicians, without the significant communication gaps that often muddy that part of the process.
Phase 1 of the DoD OEA program has proven successful enough that Phase 2 funds were awarded based on the progress achieved in Phase 1. That extends the work of ADAPT, Citrine, Colorado School of Mines, University of Utah, and Carnegie Mellon University, along with the University of Utah MEP Center, to July 2020. The results achieved through the TARDEC project, initiated by Fort Carson in Colorado, created an opportunity to discuss ways to apply AM to help Peterson Air Force Base with some specific needs as the project moves into Phase 2.
The efforts in the DoD OEA program have ranged from granular research – Carnegie Mellon’s work to understand the fundamentals of porosity in AM builds, why it happens, where it comes from, and how to control for and avoid it – to strategic questions of the nation’s defense supply chain and diversifying and increasing resiliency of supply chains for all of manufacturing. This important work continues to demonstrate the potential of AM.
Accelerating Additive Process Qualification with Redesigned Hinge Replacements
In 2007, in response to a growing threat of IEDs (improvised explosive devices) in the Iraq War, the U.S. Department of Defense began a program to produce Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) light tactical vehicles. At some point, in response to changing threats in the field, the cab doors were modified to add a 400-lb. armor plate to the existing 800-lb. design to better protect people inside the trucks.
Unfortunately, this up-armoring added weight that tested and often exceeded the strength of the doors’ hinges. In some cases, the hinges failed while on base. In other instances, doors fell off in the field while on patrol in Afghanistan and Crimea, leaving soldiers to figure out how to reattach a 1,200-lb door to get themselves and their vehicle back to safety.
Hinge failure could take the vehicle out of commission for an extended time – as long as two years – while replacement hinges from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) were procured, delivered and installed through the traditional supply chain. At times, the valuable vehicles would need to be transported back to the U.S. at great expense to complete the repair. That led TARDEC, the U.S. Army’s Tank and Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center, to seek an alternative supply for replacement hinges. TARDEC brought the challenge to the ADAPTSM Center, and together with its members and partners, ADAPT used data-driven additive manufacturing (AM) to reproduce and ultimately redesign the hinges.
An ADAPT partnership of Colorado School of Mines, Elementum 3D, Citrine Informatics and Ft. Carson worked with TARDEC and the Air Force Research Laboratory to first replicate and characterize the fatigue performances of the direct replacement parts made using AM. The knowledge gained from that initial phase of the program informed a redesign of the hinge using design for additive principles, which reduced the number of parts in the hinge assembly from six to one and reduced the maximum stress in the hinge joints from 900 MPa to below 90 MPa (an order of magnitude increase in the factor of safety). Then, in the final stage of the program, ADAPT partnered with Professor Albert To at the University of Pittsburgh to optimize the geometry of the designed-for-AM hinges, which reduced their weight by 38% relative to the original hinge assemblies.
This collaborative process took a data-driven approach that showcased the strengths of the ADAPT Consortium. Using preexisting data from other ADAPT projects already in the adapt.citrination platform, the team was able to predict the quality of the replacement part, which was built using a completely new material/printer combination. The result was an 84% accurate prediction of build parameters on the first print, which simply replicated the design of the existing OEM hinge assembly. Then, the group was able to focus on how to create a simpler, lighter hinge, not just a direct replacement.
Using a design/build strategy that incorporated new modeling, simulation and experimental test data into the adapt.citrination database, the team was able to quickly produce quality specifications for temporary or permanent replacement parts. This feedback method – build, test, then use machine learning to evaluate and update the build – can significantly reduce development and qualification time. Testing verified that predicted settings like build direction and build speed produced a final product that meets or exceeds the performance required in the field in terms of strength, weight and durability.
The final hinge design, significantly stronger and lighter than the OEM hinges, eliminated the failure problem under the 1200-lb load and is a direct one-piece replacement that uses the same bolt pattern. A set of MRAP hinges built using ADAPT’s Optimize for AdditiveSM strategy are ready for ground vehicle testing by the Army in mid-2019.
Key improvements from the original OEM hinge include:
Through collaboration and the application of data-driven Optimize for Additive methodologies, ADAPT met the challenge of qualifying an AM process for ground vehicle part replacement by producing parts ready for ground testing, all within one year.
ADAPTSM students and faculty presented their latest Optimize for AdditiveSM research findings at TMS 2019 in San Antonio, Texas, the week of March 11.
Monday, March 11
10:00–10:30, Room 221A: “Modeling process-structure-property relationships in additively manufactured alloys with machine learning and materials informatics” (Branden Kappes, ADAPT Operations Director)
Tuesday, March 12
10:50–11:10, Room 221C: “Investigation of post-processing heat treatments on the mechanical and Microstructural properties of Inconel 718 manufactured by laser powder bed fusion” (Thomas Gallmeyer, PhD Student)
Wednesday, March 13
2:00–2:30, Room 221B: “A statistical framework to qualify the low cycle fatigue performance of additively manufactured steel replacement parts” (Aaron Stebner, ADAPT Executive Director)
2:30–2:50, Room 221B: “A new perspective on visualizing the elastic limit and the necessity of 6D limit hyper surfaces” (Zachary Brunson, PhD Student)
3:30–3:50, Room 221D: “Development of superelastic nickel-titanium-hafnium alloys for additive manufacturing” (Behnam Amin-Ahmadi, Research Assistant Professor)
Thursday, March 14
4:20–4:40, Room 305: “Comprehensive quality assurance of additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V by learning from prior studies” (Sen Liu, PhD Student)
Originally posted on Mines Newsroom on Feb. 20, 2019.
The Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPTSM) at Colorado School of Mines is collaborating with three industry partners on new research into advanced manufacturing for military applications.
ADAPT has been awarded Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grants from the U.S. Department of Defense to conduct cooperative research with ADAPT members Citrine Informatics and Elementum 3D, as well as Boulder-based Special Aerospace Services (SAS).
The funded projects include 3D printing of rocket nozzles, a materials informatics framework to predict the effects of additive manufacturing defects and the development of new steels that soldiers could easily print with in the theater of war.
“ADAPT is especially excited about these successes in the STTR programs, as economic development centered around the U.S. manufacturing supply chain motivates the core mission of ADAPT, given our incubation by the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade and continued support from the Department of Defense’s Office of Economic Adjustment,” said Aaron Stebner, executive director of ADAPT and Rowlinson Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Mines. “These programs demonstrate the funding philosophy of ADAPT— to create a bigger pie for both the academic and industry researchers. The success doing this with our small businesses shows our commitment to transitioning the research findings into new technologies and businesses that meet our nation’s modern manufacturing needs.”
The three projects, each led by the industry partner, are:
Each project has been awarded Phase I contracts of $150,000 to prove the proposed concepts. Upon successful demonstration of the ideas, the grants may be extended for three additional years at $1.5 million each, to be shared between Mines and the companies.
The STTR program encourages small businesses and universities to work together to develop new technologies that support the nation’s needs. The DoD is one of five federal agencies that currently participates in STTR. The others are the Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, NASA and the National Science Foundation.
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Lithoz assists with ceramic printer install at Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO – The Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPTSM), an industry-academia consortium that advances data informatics and advanced characterization technologies to Optimize for AdditiveSM, welcomes new member Lithoz, the world leader in development and production of ceramic materials and additive manufacturing (AM) systems.
Lithoz connected with ADAPT through a research collaboration with Professors Corinne Packard and Geoff Brennecka at Colorado School of Mines. Mines is currently investigating mechanical properties of ceramics produced by lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) with graduate student Sarah Sortedahl with the intent of exploring whether separate standards are needed for ceramic AM.
“The mechanical properties of ceramics are highly sensitive to material or manufacturing flaws,” said Professor Packard. “Working with Lithoz directly, and having a CeraFab 7500 printer here at Mines, allows us to rapidly evaluate and optimize processes for achieving strength and reliability in AM ceramics.”
“Ceramic additive manufacturing is particularly suited to aerospace and biomedical applications. The representation of these markets in ADAPT’s membership makes Mines and ADAPT a natural partnership. This partnership allowed us to install one of our ceramic printers in a Mines lab. There, it is being used for research and courses focused on AM technology and design for AM,” said Shawn Allan, VP of Lithoz America. “We are excited to see the student research projects that result from this new capability. We also hope to leverage resources such as ADAPT’s Citrination database to improve the utilization and learning that can be achieved with the vast amount of data generated in the LCM process.”
“The Lithoz membership in ADAPT formally marks our commitment to expand ADAPT’s research mission to all solid materials, beyond the alloys focus we had in our first few years,” said ADAPT Executive Director Aaron Stebner.
Lithoz is the world leader in development and production of ceramic materials and additive manufacturing systems. Ceramics produced with these systems meet the highest demands of industry especially in terms of density, strength and precision. Lithoz was founded in Vienna, Austria, in 2011 based upon research from Vienna University of Technology. Lithoz America was founded in 2017 to support the North American ceramic industry. Learn more at http://www.lithoz.com/en.
The Alliance for the Development of Additive Processing Technologies (ADAPT) is an industry-academia consortium dedicated to solving challenges in additive manufacturing (AM) using data-driven approaches. Headquartered at Colorado School of Mines, ADAPT was launched in December 2015 with funding from the Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade (OEDIT). Founding members include Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Citrine Informatics, Colorado School of Mines, Faustson Tool, Lockheed Martin and Manufacturer’s Edge. For more information, visit the ADAPT website, or find ADAPT on LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram.
ADAPT’s first Expo, combined with its Annual Public Meeting on Jan. 7, 2019, drew eight exhibitors and dozens of industry representatives, faculty members and students.
The Expo was held in the CoorsTek atrium on the campus of Colorado School of Mines. Exhibitors included Colorado OEDIT, Citrine Informatics, Elementum 3D, The 3D Printing Store, Lithoz America, GE Additive, ALD NanoSolutions and 3D Systems.
That evening, members and other guests, including State Senator Tammy Story of Colorado Senate District 16, attended a dinner at the student center and a presentation by ADAPT Executive Director Dr. Aaron Stebner and fellow ADAPT board member Dr. Craig Brice.
Together, they gave an in-depth review of ADAPT’s progress over the last three years, as well as its structure and management, economic development and education results, 2018 technical achievements and 2019 outlook. Highlights included: